swami vivekananda questioned the usefulness of

[153] He then went to Paris for the Congress of Religions in 1900. [195] In 2012, the Raipur airport was renamed Swami Vivekananda Airport. Narendra and Ramakrishna's other disciples took care of him during his last days, and Narendra's spiritual education continued. . [21][22], Narendranath was interested in spirituality from a young age and used to meditate before the images of deities such as Shiva, Rama, Sita, and Mahavir Hanuman. Bengali film director Tutu (Utpal) Sinha made a film, The Light: Swami Vivekananda as a tribute for his 150th birth anniversary. Vivekananda influenced India's independence movement;[186] his writings inspired independence activists such as Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Aurobindo Ghose, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bagha Jatin and intellectuals such as Aldous Huxley, Christopher Isherwood, and Romain Rolland. [146] That year, famine-relief work was begun by Swami Akhandananda in the Murshidabad district. Tata now asked him to head his Research Institute of Science; Vivekananda declined the offer, citing a conflict with his "spiritual interests". The math became the first building of the Ramakrishna Math: the monastery of the monastic order of Ramakrishna. [151], Despite declining health, Vivekananda left for the West for a second time in June 1899[152] accompanied by Sister Nivedita and Swami Turiyananda. "[46] Rammohan Roy, the founder of the Brahmo Samaj who was strongly influenced by unitarianism, strove towards a universalistic interpretation of Hinduism. [84] Narendra left Bombay for Chicago on 31 May 1893 with the name "Vivekananda", as suggested by Ajit Singh of Khetri,[85] which means "the bliss of discerning wisdom," from Sanskrit viveka and ānanda. [147][148][149] He visited Punjab, attempting to mediate an ideological conflict between Arya Samaj (a reformist Hindu movement) and sanatan (orthodox Hindus). Following Ramakrishna's suggestion, he went to the temple thrice, but failed to pray for any kind of worldly necessities and ultimately prayed for true knowledge and devotion from the goddess. The greatest man India produced in recent centuries was not Gandhi but Vivekananda. The New York Herald noted, "Vivekananda is undoubtedly the greatest figure in the Parliament of Religions. In 1871, at the age of eight, Narendranath enrolled at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's Metropolitan Institution, where he went to school until his family moved to Raipur in 1877. [60] Narendra and other disciples used to spend many hours in practicing meditation and religious austerities every day. "[94] Hearing Vivekananda speak, Harvard psychology professor William James said, "that man is simply a wonder for oratorical power. The New York Critique wrote, "He is an orator by divine right, and his strong, intelligent face in its picturesque setting of yellow and orange was hardly less interesting than those earnest words, and the rich, rhythmical utterance he gave them". "—unless you can do some good to the poor". A statement released by the University earlier read that Prime Minister Modi will through video conferencing unveil the life-size statue of Swami Vivekananda installed on … [119] Vivekananda was offered academic positions in two American universities (one the chair in Eastern Philosophy at Harvard University and a similar position at Columbia University); he declined both, since his duties would conflict with his commitment as a monk. Make that one idea your life – think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Swami Vivekananda. [64] He unsuccessfully tried to find work and questioned God's existence,[65] but found solace in Ramakrishna and his visits to Dakshineswar increased. His Bengali writings testify to his belief that words (spoken or written) should clarify ideas, rather than demonstrating the speaker (or writer's) knowledge. [53], Narendra's first introduction to Ramakrishna occurred in a literature class at General Assembly's Institution when he heard Professor William Hastie lecturing on William Wordsworth's poem, The Excursion. "[189], Jamsetji Tata was inspired by Vivekananda to establish the Indian Institute of Science, one of India's best-known research universities. [207], Here is a list of selected books by Vivekananda that were published after his death (1902)[208], Indian Hindu monk and philosopher (1863-1902), Bhubaneswari Devi (1841–1911); "I am indebted to my mother for the efflorescence of my knowledge. [132], From the West, Vivekananda revived his work in India. [52], In 1881 Narendra first met Ramakrishna, who became his spiritual focus after his own father had died in 1884. [4][5] He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world,[6][7] and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. [109] American newspapers reported Vivekananda as "the greatest figure in the parliament of religions" and "the most popular and influential man in the parliament". This prompted some of his students (including Narendra) to visit Ramakrishna. On the way, they visited France and Italy, and set sail for India from Naples on 30 December 1896. He is bound to make his mark in life". [190] While National Youth Day in India is observed on his birthday, 12 January, the day he delivered his masterful speech at the Parliament of Religions, 11 September 1893, is "World Brotherhood Day". Born into an aristocratic Bengali Kayastha family of Calcutta, Vivekananda was inclined towards spirituality. The goal is to manifest this Divinity within by controlling nature, external and internal. No good will come of sitting idle and having princely dishes, and saying "Ramakrishna, O Lord! [39], It was in this cultic[43] milieu that Narendra became acquainted with Western esotericism. [173] He emphasised that success was an outcome of focused thought and action; in his lectures on Raja Yoga he said, "Take up one idea. [135][136] In 1895, Vivekananda founded the periodical Brahmavadin to teach the Vedanta. According to Michael Taft, Ramakrishna reconciled the dualism of form and formless, Sooklalmquoytes Chatterjee: "Sankara's Vedanta is known as Advaita or. [104][note 4] Vivekananda quoted two illustrative passages from the "Shiva mahimna stotram": "As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee!" The Boston Evening Transcript reported that Vivekananda was "a great favourite at the parliament... if he merely crosses the platform, he is applauded". The then Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee, the President of India before the current President Ram Nath Kovind, approved in principle the Swami Vivekananda Values Education Project at a cost of ₹1 billion (US$14 million), with objectives including: involving youth with competitions, essays, discussions and study circles and publishing Vivekananda's works in a number of languages. [150] After brief visits to Lahore,[144] Delhi and Khetri, Vivekananda returned to Calcutta in January 1898. [198], Vivekananda was featured on stamps of India (1963, 1993, 2013, 2015 and 2018), Sri Lanka (1997 and 2013) and Serbia (2018). [128] During his stay in America, Vivekananda was given land in the mountains to the southeast of San Jose, California to establish a retreat for Vedanta students. "[182][183] The first governor-general of independent India, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, said "Vivekananda saved Hinduism, saved India". [153] Vivekananda then visited Brittany, Vienna, Istanbul, Athens and Egypt. [129] The largest American centre is the Vedanta Society of Southern California in Hollywood, one of the twelve main centres. Vivekananda was born Narendranath Datta (shortened to Narendra or Naren)[12] in a Bengali family[13][14] at his ancestral home at 3 Gourmohan Mukherjee Street in Calcutta,[15] the capital of British India, on 12 January 1863 during the Makar Sankranti festival. On learning that Vivekananda lacked credentials to speak at the Chicago Parliament, Wright said "To ask for your credentials is like asking the sun to state its right to shine in the heavens". [174], Vivekananda was one of the main representatives of Neo-Vedanta, a modern interpretation of selected aspects of Hinduism in line with western esoteric traditions, especially Transcendentalism, New Thought and Theosophy. [137] Later, Vivekananda's translation of the first six chapters of The Imitation of Christ was published in Brahmavadin in 1889. He was also interested in Hindu scriptures, including the Vedas, the Upa… [50] It was Sen's influence who brought Vivekananda fully into contact with western esotericism, and it was also via Sen that he met Ramakrishna. [203], According to Banhatti, "[a] singer, a painter, a wonderful master of language and a poet, Vivekananda was a complete artist",[204] composing many songs and poems, including his favourite,[citation needed] "Kali the Mother". [184] According to Subhas Chandra Bose, a proponent of armed struggle for Indian independence, Vivekananda was "the maker of modern India";[185] for Gandhi, Vivekananda's influence increased Gandhi's "love for his country a thousandfold". [177] However, this view has been criticised as an oversimplification of Hinduism. [20] His mother, Bhubaneswari Devi, was a devout housewife. [168][note 7] Vivekananda summarised the Vedanta as follows, giving it a modern and Universalistic interpretation:[165]. [76] Narendra later reminisced about the early days of the monastery:[77]. In Colombo, he gave his first public speech in the East. [130] Christina Greenstidel of Detroit was also initiated by Vivekananda with a mantra and she became Sister Christine,[131] and they established a close father–daughter relationship. "Swami Vivekananda … [63] He even rejected the Advaita Vedanta of "identity with the absolute" as blasphemy and madness, and often ridiculed the idea. [32], William Hastie (principal of Christian College, Calcutta, from where Narendra graduated) wrote, "Narendra is really a genius. [111] He spoke several more times "at receptions, the scientific section, and private homes"[104] on topics related to Hinduism, Buddhism and harmony among religions until the parliament ended on 27 September 1893. [61], Narendra's father's sudden death in 1884 left the family bankrupt; creditors began demanding the repayment of loans, and relatives threatened to evict the family from their ancestral home. Beginning in June 1895, Vivekananda gave private lectures to a dozen of his disciples at Thousand Island Park, New York for two months. [117] During his second visit to the UK in May 1896 Vivekananda met Max Müller, a noted Indologist from Oxford University who wrote Ramakrishna's first biography in the West. During this visit, Vivekananda established Vedanta Societies in San Francisco and New York and founded a shanti ashrama (peace retreat) in California. [46] His ideas were "altered [...] considerably" by Debendranath Tagore, who had a romantic approach to the development of these new doctrines, and questioned central Hindu beliefs like reincarnation and karma, and rejected the authority of the Vedas. We used to get up at 3:00 am and become absorbed in japa and meditation. While in the West, Vivekananda spoke about India's great spiritual heritage; in India, he repeatedly addressed social issues: uplifting the people, eliminating the caste system, promoting science and industrialisation, addressing widespread poverty and ending colonial rule. Following a brief stay in England, he went to the United States. "[107] According to Sailendra Nath Dhar, "it was only a short At 7:00 pm Vivekananda went to his room, asking not to be disturbed;[158] he died at 9:20 p.m. while meditating. [13][18] Durgacharan Datta, Narendra's grandfather was a Sanskrit and Persian scholar[19] who left his family and became a monk at age twenty-five. In the words of social reformer Charles Freer Andrews, "The Swami's intrepid patriotism gave a new colour to the national movement throughout India. [20], In 1871, at the age of eight, Narendranath enrolled at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's Metropolitan Institution, where he went to school until his family moved to Raipur in 1877.

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