cnidarians and ctenophores similarities

It has been the focus of debate for many years. Pinacocytes, plate-like cells, form a single-layered external skin over all other parts of the mesohyl that are not covered by choanocytes, and the pinacocytes also digest food particles that are too large to enter the ostia, while those at the base of the animal are responsible for anchoring it. There are four types of larvae, but all are balls of cells with an outer layer of cells whose flagellae or cilia enable the larvae to move.

[15] Ctenophores have been compared to spiders in their wide range of techniques from capturing prey – some hang motionless in the water using their tentacles as "webs", some are ambush predators like Salticid jumping spiders, and some dangle a sticky droplet at the end of a fine thread, as bolas spiders do. Juveniles of all groups are generally planktonic, and most species resemble miniature adult cydippids, gradually developing their adult body forms as they grow. [66] Mnemiopsis populations in those areas were eventually brought under control by the accidental introduction of the Mnemiopsis-eating North American ctenophore Beroe ovata,[68] and by a cooling of the local climate from 1991 to 1993,[67] which significantly slowed the animal's metabolism. Genomic studies have suggested that the neurons of Ctenophora, which differ in many ways from other animal neurons, evolved independently from those of the other animals,[70] and increasing awareness of the differences between the comb jellies and the other coelentarata has persuaded more recent authors to classify the two as separate phyla. Rapid contraction of fibers round the cnida may increase its internal pressure. Scyphozoan and hydrozoan larvae have little yolk and most lack endosymbiotic algae, and therefore have to settle quickly and metamorphose into polyps. [11], Cnidarian sexual reproduction often involves a complex life cycle with both polyp and medusa stages. A very few species reproduce by budding. Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa. Fossil cnidarians have been found in rocks formed about 580 million years ago, and other fossils show that corals may have been present shortly before 490 million years ago and diversified a few million years later. Modern cnidarians are generally classified into four main classes:[11] sessile Anthozoa (sea anemones, corals, sea pens); swimming Scyphozoa (jellyfish) and Cubozoa (box jellies); and Hydrozoa, a diverse group that includes all the freshwater cnidarians as well as many marine forms, and has both sessile members such as Hydra and colonial swimmers such as the Portuguese Man o' War. [11] Cnidaria give their symbiotic algae carbon dioxide, some nutrients, a place in the sun and protection against predators.[12]. [8] Also, research on mucin genes, which allow an animal to produce mucus, shows that sponges have never had them while all other animals, including comb jellies, appear to share genes with a common origin. In bays where they occur in very high numbers, predation by ctenophores may control the populations of small zooplanktonic organisms such as copepods, which might otherwise wipe out the phytoplankton (planktonic plants), which are a vital part of marine food chains. 1) All have radial or biradial symmetry.. 2) Good tissue level of organization with very few organs, therefore no true organ systems.. 3) diploblastic (mostly endoderm and ectoderm); some spp. [24] As well as forming the "signal cables" between sensory neurons and motoneurons, intermediate neurons in the nerve net can also form ganglia that act as local coordination centers.

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